FLIGHT CONTROLS - THROTTLE QUADRANT
Flight Controls - General Information
Second to the yoke, a throttle quadrant (TQ) is probably the next important item in the simulator. There is more to the TQ than thrust levers. A TQ includes functionality for thrust levers, reverse thrust, idle cut outs, flaps, speedbrakes, park brake, trim wheels spinning, horn cut out, stabilizer trim cut out and trim tab indicators. As with the flight yoke, if possible it's best to not scrimp in this area.
I've used several throttle set ups beginning with the keyboard (FS1), migrating to CH Products throttle before using a higher end unit manufactured by Precision Flight Controls (PFC).
The B737-800 Project uses the following flight controls:
- OEM B737-500 dual yokes and columns
- OEM B737-500 Throttle Quadrant (revamped to NG style)
- OEM B737-400 Rudder Pedals with custom-made rudder pedal assembly
- OEM B737-400 Steering Tiller (identical to NG)
OEM is an acronym for Original Equipment Manufacturer.
Throttle Quadrants - Historical perspective
There are many differing throttle units commercially available for use in flight simulator and selecting one is predominately based on what level of realism you are seeking.
At an early stage I was moving towards a reproduction throttle quadrant produced by one of several companies such as ThrottleTec or Revolution-Sim. Without going into great detail, I wasn't convinced that the reproduction throttles provided consistent reliable service for the amount of expenditure required (over $5000.00 USD). The more down market throttles, such as that produced by ThrottleTec did provide consistent operation, however, lacked realism and authenticity. It didn't take much imagination to finally decide on a reconditioned genuine 737 throttle from a real aircraft.
To Avioid Confusion
To date I have converted two throttle quadrants. The first was from a B737-300 with a two-bay center pedestal. This was converted by Northern Flight Sim for manual use only. The unit was subsequently sold and replaced bt a B737-500 quadrant with three-bay center pedestal. This unit was converted to full automation and is the current throttle quadrant in the simulator.
In time, this unit will be modified further to replace some of the mevhaism which is now antiquated due to the evolution of more advanced mechanisms.
First TQ - B737-300 Throttle Quadrant
I was fortunate to find a throttle quadrant for sale in a tear down yard in Arizona. The throttle came from retired Boeing 737-300 series aircraft and included the full throttle quadrant and center pedestal complete with DZUS rails. The TQ belonged to a South West 737 that plied the continental US for many years.
LEFT: First TQ - B737-300 throttle quadrant. This quadrant was not converted to full automation and motorization; therefore, conversion after basic refurbishing wasn't overly difficult.
My Perspective: Throttle Functionality and Motorized or Non-Motorized ?
Many cockpit builders have had problems when using either reproduction or converted real throttles in flight simulator. Most of the issues centre around the motorization of the throttle and the degree of automation. Before I decided to purchase a real throttle unit, I spent considerable time researching motorized throttles and I spoke to several people who have used motorized throttles; they all had difficulty to some degree or other.
At the present time (October 2011), I don't believe the sophistication of a modern automated throttle can be accurately reproduced when using an add on hardware device (throttle). No doubt, with time and expertise many of the current issues will be solved. However, I like to fly and tinkering with a non working throttle is not my idea of a fun evening.
Therefore, I decided to have my real 737 throttle only converted to non-motorized use. This means that there is no automation attached to the workings of the throttle. If at some stage I wish to change to a motorized throttle, this can be done with the installation of a DC motor and additional software programming. I enjoy flying the aircraft manually, so not having automation is not an issue.
The functionality within FS when using a real throttle is exactly identical that of any other commercial add on throttle quadrant; everything works, with the exception that the throttle handles will not move automatically when the auto throttle command is activated on the MCP.
Second TQ - Replacement Throttle B737-500 (Full Automation, Motorization & NG Conversion)
Technology is not idle and improvements have been developed in methods to simulate throttle automation. Therefore, I have decided to upgrade to a throttle with full automation.
Rather than retrofit my existing 300 series throttle and two-bay center pedestal, I have sold this unit and purchased another late model 737 throttle complete with three-bay center pedestal (everything is easier the second time around).
Throttle Automation & Bridging
Automation of the thottle unit is controlled by two Alpha Quadrant motor controller interface cards. The cards are programmed with logic to automate the operation of the thrust levers when either CMD A or CMD B is selected on the MCP. The software used is very similar, if not identical to that used to program robotic engineering for mass production as observed in automobile and other factories. NASA also use similar technology to control the lunar robots used in the space industry.
ABOVE: The second TQ - A NG style quadrant, still in the crate after delivery. The various VGA cables and D-Sub plugs can be seen forward of the throttle unit.
A major benifit of using these cards is that it removes the need for the FS2Phidgets library. In the past with my 300 series throttle the Phidget library caused minor glitches., this being especially evident when using a USB hub.
A high current Phidget motor controller servo card is then used to act as a "bridge" between the two Alpha Quadrant motor controller interface cards and the avionics suite (in this case ProSim737).
The controller cards are the software behind the automation.
Phidget, Relay & Leo Bodnar Cards
Phidget and relay cards have been used to control many of the functions of the throttle unit, such as the accurate movement of the trim tab indicators, Runaway stab trim toggles, movement of the flaps, fire handle operation, and several other functions. Other buttons and switches located on the throttle are controlled by a Leo Bodnar BU0836X joystick controller card, and FSUPIC is used to assign functionality and calibrate if necessary.
A Phidget motor controller advanced servo card and high current motor controller card is used to power two DC pump motors that control the movement of the trim wheels (when the aircraft is being trimmed either manually or by the autopilot CMD A or CMD B).
LEFT: Backlighting is impressive as the light plates are in excellent condition.
The speed that the trim wheels spin is dictated by the logic supplied by the avionics suite (ProSim737); this logic is identical to that of the real aircraft. To change the revolutions of the trim wheels, the Phidget card has been set-up using two channels, each channel controls a specific speed. The speed used is dependent on the level of automation set from the MCP.
An electric motor, previously used to power and move automobile electric windows, is used to power the smooth movement of the throttle levers.
The operation of the speed brake, which replicates the logic observed in the real aircraft, can be either controlled by the logic within the Alpha Quadrant cards or by the flight avionics (ProSim 737).
LEFT: New TQ installed and operational.
To enable the speed brake lever to engage at the correct position, a number of micro buttons have been strategically located beneath the plate of the speed brake lever. Movement of the lever over the switch sends a signal which activates or deactivates four relays that trigger the speed brake logic.
The mechanical circuit is simplistic in design and allows accurate and trouble free operation that is a mechanical solution to a normally software driven operation.
Speed of Lever Movement
The speed that the lever moved when the spoilers are deployed was an issue on my earlier throttle (it was snail slow). To solve this problem, a high torque DC motor identical to that used for the movement of the throttle levers has been used. The motor provides enough power to move the lever at a similar speed observed in the real aircraft.
The DC motors for both the speed brake and the throttle lever movement is mounted forward of the throttle unit.
The flaps lever in most throttle units is controlled by a potentiometer that is calibrated via FSUPIC. Calibrating with FSUPIC can be troublesome and often the calibration is not very accurate due to the minimal throw of the potentiometer. Contamination and variance in potentiometer manufacturer (+- tolerances) can also be problematic.
A solution was developed that replaces the potentiometer with a series of micro buttons. The micro buttons have been correctly positioned on a custom-made bracket that is mounted immediately below the flap arc beneath the flaps lever. The micro buttons are on/off and are activated as the flaps lever is lifted or dropped into the flaps detent position.
Calibration of the flaps is done directly through ProSim737, FSUPIC is not required. This method is very accurate and does not require any calibration, tweaking or maintenance. The use of buttons to replace the minimal throw of a potentiometer allows a complete range of movement from flaps up to flaps 40.
The throttle unit has been overhauled in the United States and passed along to a good friend who is exceptionally knowledgeable on the finer points of throttle motorization. In addition to being a real-world 737 Captain, a Degree in Aviation Engineering has enabled him to master the intricacies of electronics. The end product of this is that the throttle will have state of the art electronics to ensure accurate and long lasting performance.
The posts that document the conversion of the Boeing 737 throttle to Flight Simulator have generated considerable interest. To consolidate the posts for retrieval, I’ve provided links to those posts that deal with the conversion of the throttle quadrant. These links only relate to the B737 NG throttle and do not relate to the B737-300 throttle sold in 2012. Any post from 2013 onwards deals ONLY with the new quadrant.
The following links are to posts on this site concerning the B737 NG throttle quadrant.
- B737 TQ - Overview
- B737 TQ - Speedbrake Conversion and Use
- B737 TQ - Flaps UP to 40; Conversion and Use
- B737 TQ - Trim Wheels and Trim Indicator tabs
- B737 TQ - Parking Brake Lever Mechanism
- B737 TQ - Automated Thrust Lever Movement (A/T) & Troubleshooting
Updated Information (July 2014)
After many hours using the throttle quadrant, several 'teething issues' have surfaced.
These issues are mainly associated with the autothrottle system and the fan belt mechanism used to connect the thrust levers with the clutch assembly. The mechanical movement of the speedbrake is also affected.
To rectify these issues mecvhanical upgrades are being done to improve autothrottle capability and accuracy of thrust lever movement. The speedbrake mechanism is also being replaced with a clutch mechanism which will ensure the speedbrake lever does not become loose.